On 4th March 2014 a group of ten Polish students with the headmaster of electrical school complex Piotr Czlapinski, the English teacher Tomasz Skiermanski and the electrical specialist teacher Bart³omiej Brodecki are away in the direction of Gyöngyös in Hungary in order to discover the local alternative energy resources, and local ways of its acquisition. The delegation visited the following places:
- Hydro power plant in Kisköre
- Power plant in Visonta
- Biomass plant in Tass Puszta
- University of Óbudai in Budapest
- Photo-volcanic cells in Gyöngyös

The delegation gathered information on each of these sites. The results of our work are the following:

 

Alternative energy - photo-volcanic cells

On the 7th March 2014 we were invited to visit one exceptional property situated in the Hungarian town of Gyongyos. The owner has installed 21 photo-volcanic cells on the roof of his garage.

He did this 3 years ago and paid for the whole construction the amount of 3.100.000 Ft (which is about 50.000 PLN) from his own resources. The calls are fitted on the roof at the angle of 35o and face the northern direction. From the information provided by the investor, we know that the theoretical power output production of one cell is 250 watts (which is 5250 Watts altogether) and the average efficiency is 15% (during the first years of usage it was 96-97%). According to the technical specification, we?ve found out that these cells are the 2nd generation based on the P-N connection made from the chemical compound of cadmium telluride. This technology provides a very high longevity. We also know the cost of 1KW/h is 50Ft (which is about 70gr in PLN). If the amount of sunny hours equals 1800 per year, the landlord is able to produce electricity and hot water easily.  Provided that the photo-volcanic cells efficiency will be maintained on the same level, we can deduce that it will produce about 9450kwh/year which gives   6615z³ (PLN) of savings/year. This way it is easy to calculate that the return of the investment?s worth should be reached in about 7,5 years? time. However, the investor hasn?t thought of a way to store the surplus of the energy and he sells it to a company. In the case of power shortage on his property he switches onto the traditional power supply lines. At the end of each year he is given a general electricity bill for the sold and used-up energy. Currently, the received bills are mutually excluding one another which means that he has free energy for the whole year.

Kiskore Hydroelectric Power Plant Hungary

Hydro power is generated by using electricity generators to extract energy from moving water. Historically, people used the power of rivers for agriculture and wheat grinding. Today, rivers and streams are re-directed through hydro generators to produce energy, although there are pros and cons as far as local ecosystems are concerned. The article on this page explores the use of water to generate electricity.

The Hydro Power Plant is located in Kiskore, Heves district, Hungary. It is one of two objects on Tisza River. Kiskore Hydroelectric Power Plant is the biggest dam on this river. First, the idea was to build a dam only. They started the construction in 1967 and opened it to the public in 1973. Afterwards, it was transformed into The Hydroelectric Power Plant within a year.

Kiskore Hydroelectric Power Plant utilizes the DDA systems. They were supplied by Siemens. There are four tunnel-hydro turbines under water. Each of them generates 7MW. Altogether they generate the maximum power of 28MW. They usually work on 96% of their maximum power. The diameter of one turbin is 4,6m. Start-up time takes from 30 minutes to 60 minutes. The max bandwith for one turbine is 140 cubic meters per second. However the average waterflow is 60 cubic meters per second and generates about 7-8MW. Generating electricy depends on the water level. The turbines work when the water level reaches from 2 to 11 meters. When the water level is under this threshold (of 2 meters) the turbine stops. The most optimal water level is 5-6 meters.

Kiskore dam has three main uses. First is producting energy, second part regulates the water level and consists of 5 water-locks. The third one which is called water gate allows the passage of ships and ferries both ways. The vessels can be as long as 80 meters.

The highest parameters at the Kiskore Hydroelectric Power Plant were reached in 2002 when there was a huge flood in Hungary. The water level was 11 meters high and the Power Plant produced the most energy ever.

Kiskore Hydroelectric Power Plant works 365 days each year. They supply the town called Szolnok.

Visonta Power Plant

 

Today (11.03.2014) we were at the coal-based Visonta Power Plant where we were shown the conventional part responsible for the production of electricity as well as the possibility of energy production from the biomass.

Biomass is the biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms . In the context of biomass for energy this is often used to mean plant based material, but biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material. Visonta works ecologically since 2000 and the power plant doesn?t contaminate  the environment. This power station produces from 15 to 20 percent of all Hungary demand for electricity. Visonta is Hungarian-German cooperation and has two integrated mines (the first is in Visonta , the second is located 60 km farther).

The value of burning material is between 6500 ? 7500 KJ per year. All consumption of heating is 60 Petajoules. The 10% of generated energy stems from the renewable sources  which means in total 500000 kg of biomass per year is used for its production . The firms located near the power plant support the centre. Visonta is following the UE plans for 2020 when they have to raise their renewable sources support rate up to 20%. These companies use their side products, for ex . gypsum produced in the process of filtering the pollution emitted to the atmosphere, waste from agricultural farms and forestry waste. The Visonta power plant company tries to recultivate 500HA of the terrain currently. The plants used to recultivate the terrain must be stay in ground for 3 to 4 years.

The Power plant was built between 1969 and 1972 and contains 5 units. Mining work has started 5 years before its construction. The maximum capacity that can be generated is 950 MW. The average generating capacity is 660 MW. Biomass costs two times more than coal but the government is trying to normalize these conditions by rising the prizes for energy. The power station is supplied by two mines and the coal is delivered by train. The current value of company is over 13000000000 forints. The most important parts which were renovated are : two gas turbines and the flue-gas desulphurization system. However, the renovation of every mining machine has also occurred on several occasions . There are 2100 people employed both in mines  and the power station .

There are plans to make 2 solar energy power plants, one of solar plants will produce 15MW. In the Visonta vicinity there is one of the companies called  Green Oil and its primary tasks are: compliance with the guidelines of the EU concerning the production of bio-diesel oil , use of the renewable energy sources and lowering the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. One of the buildings at Visonta is the object that is used to reduce the quantity of waste. Another building

in Visonta is used to store the waste which doesn?t require reduction . The sorted material from these two buildings travel to main furnace . The Visonta power plant receives up to 15 various materials to process for e.g.: (seed husks, the peeled skin of mushrooms etc. all coming in from the food processing companies or farms). Excluding the materials which decompose,  the company gains also waste from the municipal sewage system. The only requirement concerning the waste is that this material shouldn?t exceed 5cm in dimensions or in diameter . The daily processing parameters are from 200 to 300 tons of material. One of the buildings stores and disposes ash after mixing it with water.

The Visonta cooling system is similar to the one utilized in cars because the coolant liquid circulates in a closed circuit. The power plant produces about 6,5 tones of CO2 per year but due to the state-of-the art filtering device which utilizes sprays of lime stone, it is able to filter out the pollution with the efficiency as high as 97%-the side-effect of which is the formation of gypsum used by one of the building companies which works in symbiosis with the power plant. The noise produced in the desulphurization/cooling pylon is between 60-70 Decibels.

Tass Puszta biomass factory

In the afternoon of 11.03.2014 we visited the biomass heating plant In Tass Puszta. There is a plantation of energetic trees which provides wooden chips. The work on plantation is fully automated and they are self-sufficient heat producers for the purpose of heating greenhouses. The temperature there is always the same +25° Celsius independently on the season. One such Greenhouse is 200 square meters. The production of one energetic tree takes 2 years. They are planted in February and the collected at the end of November. One of the trees provides 25kg of energetic material. They don?t use any chemical products and they use compost as fertilizers. Seedlings are as high as 20cm and after 2 years they reach 3-4m. In one hour they can cut 1, 5 ha plant of energetic trees. First time they planted the trees was in 2011. The vitality of the soil is 20 years which means they can plant trees 10 times because one growing phase lasts 2 years. The cost of reworked energetic trees is about 50 ? 70 euro for a ton. In comparison the cost of wooden briquettes is twice the price (about 140?). Currently there is being conducted an experiment in which 16 types of trees are planted such as elm, acacia, willow, and others to check which one will be the best energy material. The ground at Tass Puszta is of medium quality. During 2-3 years they obtained donations of about 800? per hectare. 21 people in total work on the plantation. The basic product of the farm is paprika but additionally they grow wheat, corn and sun flowers and also use the leftovers of plants to produce biomass.

Renewable energy ideas ? Devices implemented in Óbudai Egyetemen university.

Today we took part in a trip to Budapest. We heard about renewable energy methods in Óbuda University. They have several devices which generate enough energy to power vehicles with electric driven engines like cars and motorcycles and the charger which provides this energy output is provided by Schneider Electrics.

The person responsible for the presentation and explanation of the labs? purpose and experiments concerning the various implementations of renewable energy sources was dr. Peter Kadar who gave a very interesting, competent and informative lecture on the subject matter.

They have 5 types of renewable energy sources and the fourth one is the newest and it is just an experiment for students.

First method is solar panels to gain electricity directly (aka photovoltaic cells or PV devices). In these cells, there are semiconductors p-n (silicon alloys and other materials).  Currently the generations which are in use are the ones that have 2 monomeric cells, 2 polymeric cells and several made with grafen (the most flexible one that we can see in one of the pictures where it is integrated into the entrance roof). Some of the photo-volcanic cells are also mounted on the roof on a tracker device which follows the sun and adjusts the position vertically and horizontally owing to which the system is able to produce 40% more energy than the standard solutions. The amount of energy is measured by electricity?s counter by both analogue ones as well as digital ones. The taken readings can be used for the analysis of the amount of energy available in different seasons of the year, in various weeks and days.

The second makes use of solar collectors utilized to heat water. This system consists of panels which gather heat energy where a heat pump transports it to a boiler where the energy is stored. Then they use it in the central heating system.

The third method gathers wind energy. They have one horizontal wind turbine and two vertical wind turbines.

Another one is a system which is able to produce energy with a help of gas. The gas is used to put in motion an induction-based engine. The engine produces an amount of mechanical energy which is turned into electric energy.

The last example of acquiring renewable energy is the geo-thermal energy. They gather it on the basis of the difference of the temperature of water. This water circulation resembles the classic central heating system.

We also were in a High Voltage Lab. One of the professors showed us electric discharge phenomenon. The maximum voltage is about 220kV on a current of 1A. The energy of discharge allows them to generate electricity for about 50-60 households.