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'Hydropower' ? What is it?

Hydropower is power derived from the energy of falling and running water. Kinetic energy of flowing water rotates the blades or propellers of turbine, which rotates the axle. The axle has a coil which is placed between magnets. When the coils rotate in magnetic field it induce them in the coil due to change in flux. Hence, kinetic energy of flowing water is converted to electrical energy. Hydropower is currently the world's largest renewable source of electricity, accounting for 6% of worldwide energy supply or about 15% of the world's electricity. In Canada, hydroelectric power is abundant and supplies 60% of our electrical Needs. Traditionally thought of as a cheap and clean source of electricity, most large hydro electric schemes being planned today are coming up against a great deal of opposition from environmental groups and native people.
History of Hydropower
The first recorded use of water power was a clock, built around 250 BC. Since that time, humans have used falling water to provide power for grain and saw mills, as well as a host of other applications. The first use of moving water to produce electricity was a waterwheel on the Fox river in Wisconsin in 1882, two years after Thomas Edison unveiled the incandescent light bulb. The first of many hydro electric power plants at Niagara Falls was completed shortly thereafter. Hydro power continued to play a major role in the expansion of electrical service early in this century, both in North America and around the world. Contemporary Hydro-electric power plants generate anywhere from a few kW, enough for a single residence, to thousands of MW, power enough to supply a large city. Early hydro-electric power plants were much more reliable and efficient than the fossil fuel fired plants of the day. This resulted in a proliferation of small to medium sized hydro-electric generating stations distributed wherever there was an adequate supply of moving water and a need for electricity. As electricity demand soared in the middle years of this century, and the efficiency of coal and oil fueled power plants increased, small hydro plants fell out of favour. Most new hydro-electric development was focused on huge "mega-projects".
Włocławek Hydroelectric Power Plant - the biggest flowing station in Poland.


Włocławek Hydroelectric Power Plant ? technical data

River: Vistula


Location: 674,850 km

Built: 1970

Damming ordinate: 57,30 m above sea level

Nominal slope: 8,80 m

Hydro complexes number: 6

Turbine type: Kaplan turbine

Installed power: 160,2 MW

Installed swallow: 2 190 m3/sec

Average production: 739 GWh/a







History of Włocławek Hydroelectric Power Plant

The beginning of this station was between 1963-1970 when the water step was built in Włocławek. The water step was officially added into use on 17 October 1970. In November 1971 the steps objects were separated between the two present resorts managing the water agriculture in Poland and energetic.

The tank with the object, frontal dam, weir, fish pass and sailing lock were given to County Water Board in Warsaw, but the plant was taken over by the Energetic company of Northern County in Bydgoszcz.

Hydroelectric Power Plant Company in Straszyn lead the exploitation of the plant until 1973. After the energetic resort reorganization in 1973 the hydroelectric power plants in Gródek and Żur on Wda and Włocławek made the Hydroelectric Power Plant Region with the seat in Włocławek subordinated to Toruń Energetic Company.

In 1976 along with introducing new administrative division of the country Włocławek Hydroelectric Power Plant Region was dissolved. In the name of the Treasury Włocławek is used by Toruń Energetic Company. Within this corporation the company of trade law named Hydroelectric Power Plant in Włocławek was set on 1st March 1998- limited liability company was started on the base of hydroelectric power plant crew. The range of duties of the new economic entity embraced full plant exploitation which is: electric energy production and maintenance of movement and readiness of electric and hydro technical equipment.

Since July 2007 hydroelectric power plant in Włocławek is the part of ENERGA Straszyn Power Stations limited liability company.

The frontal plant's buildings located on one of the cross section on 674,85 km of Vistula. Due to the water damming the water tank was made of 55 km length. Hydroelectric power plant was located on the left river bank between the navigable lock and weir form which it is separated by the fish pass pillar. The hydroelectric power plant building of 154 m length and 60 m width was divided into three sections. In each section there are two hydro complexes. The hydro complex is built from Kaplan turbine of 8,0m DW impeller diameter compressed with the generators of 31,8 MVA power each. The plant is connected with the Country's Energetic System with three aerial lines of 110 kV power through three block convertors of 68 MVA power each. The installed power of the plant is 160,2 MW.

Solar Cells

Solar cells are devices that convert light energy directly into electrical energy. In these cells, there are semiconductors (silicon alloys and other materials). You may have seen small solar cells on calculators or some mobile phones. Larger arrays of solar cells are used to power satellites in orbit around Earth. Solar cells are also called photovoltaic cells or PV devices.

3VP method is in fact a conventional printing on paper. Key  to the new technology is the ink. We can produce ink by adding components with conductive properties. To convert sunlight into electricity, we just have
to paint the lines on the sheet. The technology is called 3PV, which is the abbreviation of "printed paper photovoltaics."


Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air.

Accumulation of wind turbines and associated infrastructure are called wind farms or wind parks (sometimes wind turbines)

-Wind farm

-Offshore wind farms

The earth's surface has both land and water. When the sun comes up, the air over the land heats up quicker than that over water. The heated air is lighter and it rises. The cooler air is denser and it falls and replaced the air over the land. In the night the reverse happens. Air over the water is warmer and rises, and is replaced by cooler air from land.

The moving air (wind) has huge amounts of kinetic energy, and this can be transferred into electrical energy using wind turbines. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity. The electricity is sent through transmission and distribution lines to a substation, then on to homes, business and schools

Wind turbine provides energy to loader which loads batteries. Batteries

supplies turbine whitch turns energy in order that could be use in our

house.  Computer controls  system because discharge could carry

weight  on faster exploitation batteries.  Second role control computer is

fit turbie power to need power because if we don?t use full power

unused power will be lost. (defect AC)

Photovoltaic cells

›Photovoltaic cells can be constructed in the same way as their ground counterparts, with the difference that they should be able to turn to be able to set up at the correct angle to the sun for maximum efficiency. Conducted research in nanotechnology allowed to increase the efficiency of solar cells by more than three times, which means that they will have used almost 60% of the absorbed energy with a current efficiency was around 20%.